Prem uses APA Style citations. Below you will find out how to use this style and some online links to support you. The Library staff are also able to help you.

Not sure if you know how to do this? check this quiz   Support videos and the guide can be found here


APA Style guide from Sydney University


The APA Style Basics

Book with single author or editor

Pollan, l. (2006). The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin.

intext : (Pollan, 2006, pp. 99-100)

Book with two authors

Ward, G C., & Burns, K. (2007). The War: An Intimate History, 1941-1945 (2nd ed.). New York: Knopf.

intext:  (Ward & Burns, 2007, p. 52)

Journal article & Newspapers

Blair, W.  (1977). Americanized Comic Braggarts. Critical Inquiry 4(2) , 331-49.

In text: (Blair, 1977, pp. 331-32)

Journals  & Newspapers consulted online

APA recommends the inclusion of a DOI or a URL

APA does not demand access dates but  IB REQUIRE ACCESS DATES when included should immediately precede the DOI or URL

Novak, W. J. (2008). The Myth of the ‘Weak’ American State. American Historical Review, 113, 752-72. doi:10.1086/ahr.113.3.752.

Retrieved from Retrieved January 20, 2018.

In text: (Novak, 2008, p. 758)

2 authors

Karmaus, W., &  Riebow, J.F.  (2004). Storage of Serum in Plastic and Glass Containers May Alter the Serum Concentration of Polychlorinated Biphenyls. Environmental Health Perspectives 112 (May ), 645,  Retrieved from Retrieved January 20, 2018.

In text: (Karmaus & Riebow , 2004, p. 645)

6 authors

Charles, P. G. P.,  Wolfe, R. , Whitby, M.,  Fine, M. J., Fuller, A. J., Stirling, R.,  Wright, A. A. , (2008)  SMART-COP: A Tool for Predicting the Need for Intensive Respiratory or Vasopressor Support in Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Clinical Infectious Diseases 47 (August 1),  375-84. doi:10.1086/589754. Retrieved July 17, 2008

In text: (Charles et al., 2008, pp. 378-79)

Website content

A citation may be styled as in the examples below. Because such content is subject to change, include an access date or, if available, a date that the site was last modified. In the absence of a date of publication, use the access date or last-modified date as the basis of the citation. This is often the hardest citation to create as sometimes the information is hard (or impossible) to find.

This is the basic format:

Author Last Name, First Initial/or organization. (date) Title of Page Visited.Title of Website, Retrieved from URL. Retrieved on date

In text: (Author Last Name, Publication Date)

Thwink. (2014) Sustainability Problem. Thwink, Retreived from Retrieved on 22/8/2018

Mercola, J. (2016)  How Your Couch Hurts Your Thyroid., June 7, 2016,  Retrieved from  Retrieved on 20 January, 2018.

In text: (Mercola, 2016)


Use the person who posted the video as the author. Copy the author’s name and video as it is posted on the database. Include the full URL. Include the total time of the video in the reference.

Lastname, First initial of Performer, Writer or Creator. (Publication Date). Title of  Text. [Indication of Medium],  Available from URL.  Retrieved on date.

Intext: (Lastname, year)

OfficialPsy. 2012. Gangnam Style. [YouTube video],  Available from Retrieved 20 January, 2018.


Figure, Table, Graph, Map or Chart

Cite each of these as you would for a book. Include, in square brackets, the type of entry immediately after the title:

[Figure]. [Table]. [Map]. [Graph]. [Chart]. [Painting].

Monet, C. (1890). Haystacks, midday [Painting]. National Gallery of Australia, Canberra. Retrieved from Detail-LRG.cfm?IRN=29073&View=LRG

In text:  The effective use of light in Monet’s ‘Haystacks’ (Monet, 1890)…

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